Definition of Hadith Sunnah Khabar Atsar
The definition of Hadith etymologically الجديد means new, while terminologically according to hadith experts are:
مَا أُضِيْفَ اِلَى النَّبِّي (ص) مِنْ قَوْلٍ أَو فِعْلٍ أَو تَقْرِيْرٍ أَو صِفَةٍ
“Something that is based on the Prophet SAW, whether in the form of words, deeds, taqrir (silence) and its character. (Mahmud at-Thahan, Taysir Musthalah Hadith, (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Ma’arif, 2004), p. 17)
Definition of Hadith
The definition or understanding above states that what is included in the Hadith category are the words (Qauliyah), deeds (fi’liyah), and circumstances (ahwaliyah) of the Prophet SAW. In addition, some experts on hadith state that, also entering into its condition, everything that is narrated in the book of history (shirah), birth and descendants (silsila) and places and related to it, both before being appointed as a Prophet/Rasul, as well as afterwards.
Some scholars such as Ath-Thiby are of the opinion that “The hadith complements the words of the Prophet, the actions and decrees of the Prophet complement the words, deeds and decrees of friends. As a complement to the words, deeds and decisions to Companions are called mauquf and those that reach tabi’in are called maqthu.
Definition of Sunnah in Language and Terms
Sunnah (السنة) literally means As-Siirah Al-Muttaba’ah (السيرة المتبعة) which means the path to follow. Every path and journey followed is called a sunnah, whether it is a good path or a bad path. As for the sunnah according to the terms of the hadith experts are: Everything quoted from the Prophet SAW be it words, deeds, agreements, physical characteristics, personality, and journey of life, both before being sent and after.
Understanding Etymologically, the word as-sunnah can be interpreted as al-tariqah or al-sairah, namely the way. According to Nuruddin ‘Itr, the definition of sunnah according to language means: “the path of good or bad habits”. Something that is not a tradition or becomes a habit is called sunnah, even though it is not good.
The meaning of Sunnah according to muhaddisin is everything that was quoted from the Prophet SAW, whether in the form of words, deeds, or in the form of taqrir, teaching, character, behavior, journey of life both before being appointed as a Prophet, and after. (M. Agus Salahudin and Agus Suyadi, Ulumul Hadias (Bandung; Faithful Library, 2009), 19)
In relation to the term Hadith, from the point of view of etymology and terminology, there are differences between sunnah and hadith, as expressed by Subhi Salih and Endang Soetari Ad.
That between hadith and sunnah can be distinguished, that the connotation of hadith is all the events attributed to the Prophet SAW even though he only said and did it once. While sunnah, is something that is said or implemented continuously and quoted from time to time by way of mutawatir.
Meaning of Khabar
Khabar according to etymology is news delivered from someone. The plural is akhbar, the person who conveys the news is called khabir.
The definition of Khabar according to the term there are three opinions:
- first: that khabar and Hadith are synonyms.
- Second; khabar and hadith are different, khabar is everything that is based on friends and tabi’in, while Hadith is everything that is based on the Prophet SAW.
- Third: khabar is more general than Hadith; khabar is everything that is based on the Prophet SAW and on others, namely friends and tabi’in, while the Hadith is everything that is based on the Prophet SAW.
Of the three opinions above, the dominant one is the first opinion which says that the meaning of khabar and hadith is meaningful, and this is also the opinion of the majority of hadith scholars. Mahmud, At-Thahha. Usul al Takhrij… page 16
Definition of Atsar
Atsar according to etymology, is the former of something or the remains of something. And excerpts (which are quoted), a prayer for example that is quoted from the Prophet is called a ma’tsur prayer.
Understanding Atsar according to terminology there are two opinions,
- first: Atsar and Hadith muradif, meaning meaning.
- Second: that atsar and Hadith are different, atsar is everything that is based on friends and tabi’in both words and deeds, while Hadith Everything is based on the Prophet SAW. ).
Conclution about Definition of Hadith, sunnah, Khabar, and Atsar
By paying attention to these definitions of hadith, sunnnah, khabar and atsar there are differences, but we can interpret that the hadith, khabar, sunnah and atsar are in principle both sourced from the Prophet. (Shalih Al Utsaimin, Mustholah Al Hadith, (Cairo: Maktabah Ilmi, 1994), p. 5)